What Is Your Urine Trying to Tell You?

Historically, looking at urine has been a way for doctors to gauge a person’s health, especially before other types of testing were available. If you’ve had diabetes for a long time or know someone who has, you’ll know that urine testing was a way to figure out how well controlled (or uncontrolled) a persons’ diabetes was — this was done in the days before blood glucose meters were available. Now, of course, we have more sophisticated tools to convey glucose information. But urine still has its place. In fact, the color, smell, and consistency of your urine can give you and your doctor helpful information about what might be going on in your body.


What is urine?

Urine is a waste product that contains breakdown products from food, drinks, medicines, cosmetics, environmental contaminants, and by-products from metabolism and bacteria. Amazingly, urine contains more than 3,000 compounds — much more than what’s found in other body fluids, such as saliva or cerebrospinal fluid. The kidneys do a remarkable job of filtering and concentrating to help get these compounds out of the body (you can understand why keeping your kidneys healthy is so important). So, what is your urine telling you?

If your urine is…

Bright yellow

This may look alarming, especially when your urine seems to be glowing in the dark. But don’t worry — the bright yellow color is likely due to vitamins, specifically, B vitamins and beta carotene.

Green or blue

Green or blue urine seems like something straight out of a science fiction movie, but the color is very likely due to certain medicines that you’re taking, such as amitriptyline, indomethacin (brand name Tivorbex), or propofol (Diprivan). Your urine might also be green or blue due to food dyes or, possibly, a urinary tract infection (UTI).


Certain medications, such as rifampin (brand name Rifadin), sulfasalazine (Azulfidine EN-Tabs), and phenazopyridine (Pyridium, used to treat UTIs), laxatives, and some chemotherapy drugs can turn your urine orange. Orange urine may also be a sign of liver problems or dehydration.


Brown or tea-colored urine can result from antimalarial drugs, certain antibiotics, and laxatives that contain senna or cascara. Fava beans, rhubarb, and aloe can also darken your urine, as can some kidney and liver disorders, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Red or pink

Red or pink urine can be a sign of something serious…or not. Red urine may be due to the presence of blood, and that’s always somewhat concerning. Blood in the urine may be a sign of a UTI, enlarged prostate, a tumor, kidney or bladder stones, menstruation, or injury to the urinary tract. It can also occur if you take blood-thinning medicine or aspirin. Less alarming causes of red urine are beets, berries, and rhubarb.


Cloudy urine can result from a UTI, vaginal infection, or dehydration. If the urine is more milky in appearance, that may be due to the presence of bacteria, mucus, fat, or red or white blood cells.

By the way, “healthy” urine should be pale yellow or straw-colored in appearance.

If your urine smells…


It’s most likely due to something that you ate. Urine usually doesn’t have a strong odor. But certain foods, such as asparagus, can give it a strong smell thanks to sulfur compounds. Medicines can impart an odor, too. An ammonia-type of smell may be a sign that you’re dehydrated. And a bacterial infection can give your urine a foul odor. Less common causes of funny-smelling urine are rare genetic conditions.


Sweet-smelling urine typically indicates the presence of sugar or glucose. Of course, having diabetes increases the chances of spilling glucose into the urine if blood glucose levels are too high. The kidneys will make their best effort to get rid of excess glucose once blood glucose levels climb above 180 mg/dl. In people with Type 1 diabetes and some people with Type 2 who take insulin, sweet or fruity-smelling urine may be due to ketones. Ketones are formed when the body burns fat for fuel, and this can occur when there isn’t enough insulin to move glucose into cells for energy. Urine ketones can be measured using ketone sticks that are available in your pharmacy.

What to do

Urine can look and smell funny for a number of reasons. Most of them are relatively harmless, but if you notice any new changes in your urine or are worried about the appearance or smell, the best thing to do is call your doctor. Also, keep in mind that you may be more likely to have changes in your urine if you:

• Are older
• Are female
• Have a family history of kidney stones or kidney disease
• Do strenuous exercise

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Want to learn more about various urinary tract issues? Read “What You Need to Know About UTIs” and “Resolving Diabetes-Related Bladder Problems.”

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  • tiredoldman56

    Glad to know this info. Have heard something like this awhile back

  • jim snell


    Thank you for excellent blog and data.

  • L J Griner

    I’ve always been a firm believer in that you have to monitor what comes out just as much as what goes in. Your body’s waste can tell you a lot about your current health. Sometimes a change there is the first or only symptom of something being wrong. Now that the younger generation can read it here, maybe we “old folks” won’t get the “old wive’s tale” reaction when we bring it up! Thank you for posting the article. 🙂

  • Vicill

    Good info … I’ve been getting an odd odour from my urine lately and occasionally .. can’t quite nail it down, but I think it’s related to my supplements, just can’t figure which one .. no change in colour .. just a musty, nasty odour …… I am an older(59) T1 26yrs.

  • Bruce

    Thanks for this re-assuring post. I take a number of vitamins, including B vitamins and I exercise fairly hard, so I periodically see the bright colored urine you mentioned.

  • Merle

    This information is great to know as my urine has been different smells lately. Sometimes it is a strong bad oror and other times it smells like something that I aet.

  • Deb

    My urine is clear during the day but first thing in the morning it’s a dark orangey color. I assume it’s from not drinking anything for about 10 hours.

  • acampbell

    Hi Deb,

    Your urine can be a dark yellow or orangey color if you’re somewhat dehydrated (meaning, not drinking anything for 10 hours or so). If, as you say, your urine then becomes clear in color, chances are, a lack of fluids is the cause.

  • vivian musico

    Thank you for an in depth description of descriotion of normal and abnormal urine. I have an opposite occurence of what was explained. My urine is clear in the morning, and is light orange later in the morning. No discomfort. Two weeks ago, uti and put on nitrifurontin. Off antibiotics fir oneweek . Please comment. Thank you.

    • lily


      • JOVI


  • A. Campbell

    Hi vivian,

    I wonder if the orange color is a residual effect of your antibiotics or an indication that your UTI hasn’t completely cleared up. I’d suggest giving your doctor a call to find out what’s going on.

  • Darrell Darrell

    My has been smelling sweet for the past month so I tasted it and its real sweet, I wouldn’t even mind throwing some ice in a glass and drinking it.

    • Lawrence Daniels

      Aaaaaah,….. Nooooooo! Dooooon’t doooooo iiiiittt$

    • kwesh

      How did you even taste the urine? Did you put it in a cup or you just peed in your palm and tasted it? Just curious.

  • Tina brown

    My urine is has been a light color for awhile now but back then when I use to eat tons of sweets it was a dark yellow goldish color

  • GuitarJam

    my urine is foamy and make a hissing sound. wtf is going on

    • Tex

      Sounds like too much beer!

    • Proteinuria

      Foamy urine can be due to Proteinuria, which is when your urine is full of protein. You could’ve just googled it actually.

    • acampbell

      There could be several reasons for “foamy” urine, so if you haven’t done so already, please call or make an appointment to see your doctor.

  • acampbell

    Hi jp,
    Bright yellow urine could be a result of taking vitamin supplements or possibly, some medications. However, I’d suggest that you call your doctor and let him or her know of the change in color of your urine, as well as any other symptoms that you may be having.

  • Lilo

    Ive been having a bad odor for a few months now. I called my doctor and they prescribed me medication, but the medication didnt work and i stopped using it after two days because i broke out into rashes and got random bumps on my eyelids. I dont know what else im supposed to do. I only went in for a urine test and the only thing wrong what that my white blood cell count was abnormally low. What else should i do?

    • acampbell

      Hi Lilo,

      I’m assuming your doctor prescribed you an antibiotic, thinking that you have a urinary tract infection. You likely had an allergic reaction to the antibiotic. In any case, you should call your doctor back and let him know that you had a reaction to it. He can prescribe you another type of antibiotic. If he does, make sure you take it as directed.

  • Khan khan

    My urine coler is very very very yellow. What’s the reason?

    • AKicsi

      Recently I started taking a Vitamin pack, consisting of 10 kinds of pills such as, Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B12, fish oil, Chondroitin, MSM, CLA, Iron and so on. Since then my urine turned to as you said very very very yellow and it smells different than ever before. This is due to the massive amount of B vitamins in your body and does not have any harmful effects.

  • ✝ Eliana ✝

    If your urine seem to smell very strong , I recommend you to drink water like a whole cup before bed and after bed. And threw out the day you should drink water but like regularly. But make sure you drink a full cup of water before and after bed.

  • LA Woman

    I just woke up OMG it was the strongest most horrible nauseating smell ever like ammonia and vitamins I am NOT sexually active about 1 year or more. Seriously I had to cover my nose I almost puked never ever has this happened I am freaking out it is Sunday morning no doctor unless I want to pay with my 1st born basically can’t afford to go today also I am on my period . PLEASE SOMEONE HELP!!!!!!!

    • MOSFET

      The only input I can give….asparagus. If you eat asparagus….look out ! It stinky.

  • Pita

    What if it’s light yellow and light red? What does that mean?

  • nicole

    My pee is cloudy an i have a fishy smell half the time anymore it started about 2 weeks ago..could someone tell me what it could or couldn’t be..please

    • acampbell

      Hi Nicole,
      It could be related to something that you ate or certain medicines that you’re taking, but to be on the safe side, you should call your doctor and run your symptoms by him or her.

  • NaturallyFoXee

    This morning I woke up to a strong smelling urine. Just before I went to bed, I took my vitamins (7 vitamineral greens and two prenatal vitamins) and drank a little over 25 oz of water. Needless to say, I woke up every hour on the hour to pee. But this morning, it had a scent that I did not like. Could this be from taking my vitamins just before bedtime?

  • missy

    Sydni your not alone..this disgusting smell is like rotten eggs. It only happens in the mornings. At least what I can tell. I’m drinking plenty water because I issues with utis. But I’m clear of one for awhile. It’s crazy but something I’m going to discuss with my primary care. Just know you are not alone.

    • debi

      Any answers yet Sydni

      • William Thompson

        My Ex-wife had this strong urine when we first got married I noticed it, I also notice that she love Coke-cola. I brought this to her attention and we decided that too many sodas was the cause. She promised to stop, and when she finally did all of the odors disappeared.

    • Kamra Marie Christie

      Omg yes me too I ONLY have this in the morning!!! Like first thing when I wake up, it started when I had a minor bacterial imbalance in my vagina but my doctor gave me some meds for that and everything went back to normal, but over 2 months later, I STILL HAVE THE STRONG SMELLING URINE. It’s so gross! But the doctor didn’t seem concerned about it!

  • Renzy

    I am 18 years old , i don’t know what is really my kidney condition because i haven’t been to a doctor . My Kindey aches all the time , i don’t have any difficulty of passing my urine, its just that the volume of urine is small and its color is dark yellow , like neon yellow urine. They say its color is normal but i don’t think it really is because of the pain in my kidney , what could this possibly be? Please enlighten me !! Im waiting..

    • Marsel

      You might just need to drink more plain, clean water. If you also have any fevers, stabbing pain in that kidney and shaking, and the feeling you have the flu without the coughing and snotty nose, go to a Dr. now, You could have a kidney stone not allowing urine to flow freely to your bladder, or a serious kidney infection. I just had surgery for a monster stone blocking my urine from going to my bladder 4 days ago, and I almost died from being dehydrated though I was drinking a lot of water, and from the kidney being infected, which also poisoned my blood That will kill you. My doctor said urine should always be no darker than light pale yellow unless you’re taking a medicine that can change the colour. Good luck.

    • Georgaleen Thomas

      Train yourself to drink Cranberry juice, it can be hard at first but you will feel a difference. (truth)

  • Kittykat

    I need help, somethings going on with me and it’s worrying. When my body lets me know its time to go, ITS TIME OR ELSE. This is only for urine though. Then once I get to the restroom and use it, there is a minuscule amount of urine compared to the sensation, there’s usually about two tblspns or only a few drips. It often has a slight smell, not entirely unpleasant but not something I’d like to smell if I could help it, and I am tired of dealing with it. It’s also very frequent, when this feeling comes around during the course of a day and it does not care if it made me go ten minutes ago, it will make me have to go again and it is next to impossible to hold for any amount of time.. My urine is occasionally cloudy as well but its uncommon. It stays the same constant light tannish orange color, a copper-ish tone almost. I do not have the ability to go to a hospital atm, financially, so I am clueless as to whats happening. Please Help!

    • MonkeySEE

      I believe you have “UIT” or “Uninary Tract Infection.
      Just a guess.

    • Sadie Sheldon

      Sounds like you could have a bladder infection. Its really not too big a deal, but you should try drinking lots of water and cranberry juice. I had a bladder infection a few weeks ago, and this is what my boyfriend told me to do, and it helped a lot. I hope this helps you as well. I recommend trying to drink 2 or 3 8oz glasses of the cranberry juice a day till things start to regulate. Not exactly a science, but it totally helped me

    • Barb Chipman

      some UTI need medication or an antibiotic. somehow you should get checked by an M.D.

    • hope

      Sounds like a UTI I get those AZO pills.. you should be able to get them at any pharmacy.. they always help me

      • Bex Chamberlain

        Just to let you know, those AZO pills don’t cure a UTI, they just take away the pain, burning, etc.

        • Rachael Addair

          thats what the doc gives me is azo and it gets rid of the uti

          • JustJenna

            There is no way that’s true. AZO is for pain in the bladder only. A true UTI requires antibiotics because it can go to your kidneys and kill you. I just got out of the hospital for a kidney infection that nearly killed me. Urinary tract infections must be treated with antibiotics, they are nothing to mess around with!

    • nickjamesbitch2

      I had that once. I was just dehydrated. Drink more water

    • Dave Chickenman

      your dehydrated,your urine burns because its so strong. i get that way a lot in the summer when its hot out!

  • Josh Whitley

    what about water clear…urine?

    • Karen Glammeyer Medcoff

      healthy, well hydrated. good to have

      • Guest8675309

        I agree. I was told that healthy urine should be more clear. If too yellow or orange, that’s a sign of dehydration.

    • Darren Clift

      i am a type one diabetic, when my pee is clear, means i am spilling sugar usually. not a godo thing. some people think clear is okay, but my doctor said it should never be clear. if i get clear pee, usually means my sugars are in the 400 range or higher.

      • Shana Rodriguez

        Mine is the opposite. Diabetic x 20 years. When my urine is yellow and cloudy my sugar is above 250. When clear and light yellow my sugar is normal. Even clear my sugar is normal just I have drank a lot more fluids. I am an EMT also, So to hear the opposite puzzles me. But, no two people are alike.

        • Edith k

          Am a type two patient and my urine is clear when over hydrated

          • Thea

            Over hydrated is better than dehydrated so is this really a bad thing?!!!

    • Dennis Mullen

      my opinion is that this means you are over hydrated. Water passes through the body without picking up other liquid waste…

      • Josh Whitley

        thats what doc said

    • Tom Watson

      Water clear urine is also a bad sign of kidney failure as in your kidneys are not filtering like they should because if they were working properly there should be at least a slight yellowish color like a thinly made lemonade. I know this because I am in complete renal failure and for years my urine was absolutely clear before the final shutdown. I no longer have to pee.

      • WarNerve

        If the urine is clear it means that your kidney DID filter the urine well. That’s why it is clear. Clear urine usually happens when you drink a lot of water. Pale yellow to clear is actually good.

      • Josh Whitley

        got tasted was fine

      • Josh Whitley


      • Cynthia Ann

        Pkd runs in my family. Polycystic kidney disease… my father and 3 brothers were on dialysis.. one got a transplant. One is still on. And week my other brother just passed.. he was on it for 31 years… That’s an amazing amount of time to be on dialysis Good luck to you.. sending prayers..

  • white belt

    My urine was cloudy, but I had no other mentioned symptoms. Turns out the most probable culprits were the two exercise sessions this week (one left me at the brink of fainting, and the other made my whole body hurt). Do you think that’s strenuous enough for me not to bother?

  • zachlen

    Another reason for turning redish is from beets.Especially Beet Borscht.

  • MrNewCastrati

    What if their are blood clots in the urine?

    • kat

      Sounds like a bladder infection pr UTI.

  • kat

    Seems to be some conflicting views on this subject. For me, when I habe been at my healthiest, my urine has been clear and when at unhealthy states its been yellow to dark yellow. So for me personally when my urine is pale yellow to clear, is when I’m in a healthier state.

    • Aydan

      That’s only a difference in hydration.

  • Mark Hayes

    I love how all this internet medical information is written for women. Here’s a hint: Cloudy urine in men is probably kidney stones. So hit the cranberry juice.

    • B. Sharon Sarbin

      To Mark Hayes and others…before drinking cranberry juice, herbal teas, etc.-if you are on Warfarin or other “blood thinner”, check with whoever is monitoring your INR to see if it is safe for you to drink any of these or similar drinks, and certain foods. Some-including cranberry juice- can have very bad interactions with your medications, per my director @ Medical College of Georgia.

  • Griller

    Dark yellow usually means I’m dehydrated and need to drink more water.

  • euphemiewow

    what about pale

    • Aydan

      Pale means healthy and well-hydrated

  • Chris Shelsky

    What about purple

  • Madavor Media

    Hi RAWLCM,

    Thank you for your suggestion. This particular article has stood the test of time fairly well; only a few of the medication names needed to be changed due to medicines going generic or being discontinued or new medicines hitting the market.

    Thanks for your interest in Diabetes Self-Management!

    Diane Fennell
    Senior Digital Editor

  • Sara Milan

    Quick question:
    My urine smells like popcorn, it doesn’t hurt when I pee, I’m not pregnant, I’m a girl (teenage), it sure as heck isn’t discharge and/or my period, I drink plenty of water (I drink about 5-8 glasses of water each day on average, it varies on how hot the day is), and I don’t know what foods are able to make your urine smell. Is it just sweat? It is something serious like diabetes? Help!

    • acampbell

      Hi Sarah,

      Thanks for your question. Is this something new for you, or has your urine always smelled like popcorn? My suggestion is to call your doctor and let her know; she can then advise you if it’s anything to be concerned about and she’d likely have you come in to check it out. It’s very possible that that’s how your urine smells! But it’s always best run questions like these by your doctor. Good luck!

  • Billy

    This is going to sound weird, but I often link the smell of my urine to the cereal, smacks. It smells exactly like it to me.

    • Sparky69

      That’s what I was trying to think of, sugar smacks, puffed wheat smell

  • Subrata Dey

    Milky smell in urine..reason??

  • Allen Bipster

    My pee smells like SPAM mate. Not the computer kind, but the Spam Spam food kind. Makes me hungry and sick at the same time to smell my pee mate ! Oh, I forgot mate, my names Allen, I from Down Under.