If you’re like many people, you probably don’t think too much about vitamin C — other than, perhaps, if you’re feeling unwell with a cold or the flu. But vitamin C is worth paying attention to, since it plays so many roles in the body.
Vitamin C, which is also called ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble nutrient found in certain foods, especially some fruits and vegetables. “Water-soluble” means that the vitamin dissolves in water. Vitamin C and B vitamins (the other family of water-soluble vitamins) are carried to the body’s tissues, but they’re not stored in the body, unlike fat-soluble vitamins.
Because the body doesn’t store vitamin C, we need to consume foods or supplements that contain this vitamin every day.
Long before vitamin C was “discovered” in 1933, it was well known that feeding oranges and lemons to sailors could prevent scurvy, a disease that leads to bleeding gums, skin problems, anemia, and weakness.
Vitamin C has some pretty important and impressive responsibilities in the body.
The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academies have established the following Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin C for adults:
|14-18 years||75 mg||65 mg||90 mg||115 mg|
|19+ years||90 mg||75 mg||85 mg||120 mg|
People who smoke are advised to consume 35 additional milligrams (mg) of vitamin C each day, since smoking can deplete vitamin C levels in the body.
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Fruits and vegetables are the main sources of vitamin C, and by eating a variety of foods every day, you can get the amount that you need. Sources include:
As long as you are eating a varied diet that includes vegetables and fruits, you likely don’t need to take a vitamin C supplement. But some people could benefit from a supplement, including those who:
If you decide to take a vitamin C supplement, go easy on the dosing (remember, more isn’t necessarily better). The Food and Nutrition Board has set 2,000 mg daily as an upper level for vitamin C. At vitamin C doses above 1,000 mg daily, absorption falls to less than 50%; any vitamin C not absorbed is excreted in the urine.
For most people, large doses of vitamin C are not dangerous. But some people should be careful about taking megadoses of this vitamin, including:
Vitamin C can interact with some medicines, such as:
The most common side effects of taking large doses of vitamin C are:
Despite all the hype around loading up on vitamin C to ward off the common cold, the research doesn’t support it. However, a handful of studies suggest that taking at least 200 mg of vitamin C daily might lessen the duration and severity of a cold, especially when taken at the start of symptoms. Taking vitamin C once the cold has taken hold doesn’t seem to provide any benefits in terms of duration or severity.
Some studies suggest that vitamin C could be helpful to people with diabetes in terms of blood sugar and even blood pressure control. A meta-analysis published in the February 2021 journal Diabetes Care concluded that vitamin C supplementation “significantly lowers HbA1c, fasting and postprandial glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, SBP (systolic blood pressure), DBP (diastolic blood pressure) and MDA (a marker of lipid oxidation) in people with type 2 diabetes.” However, the authors added that more studies with a larger sample size and longer supplementation periods are needed.
Another, smaller study, published in the journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism in 2019 of just 31 people with diabetes showed that the group given two 500 mg doses of vitamin C daily had a “significant 36% drop in blood sugar spike after meals.” They also had lower blood pressure.
Higher intakes of vitamin C may protect against heart disease, which is common in people with diabetes, although there is no recommended dose to aim for. But there is evidence that supports eating vegetables and fruit can lower the risk of heart disease, as well as some types of cancers.
If you have a wound that is healing, such as a foot ulcer or other type of cut or sore, talk with your provider or registered dietitian about increasing your vitamin C intake, including taking a supplement. Vitamin C is necessary for collagen formation (necessary for wound healing), as well as overall skin health.
Want to learn more about various vitamins and minerals? Read “The Power of Potassium” and “Magnesium: The Forgotten Healer.”
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