Skin health is important not just so that you can look good, but also because it can prevent problems from forming, such as infections. You may be wondering what the big deal is about skin care if you have diabetes. Isn’t it enough to just wash yourself daily? Well, think back to what you’ve ever learned about skin. Your skin:
- Is the body’s largest organ (nope, it’s not your brain!)
- Is made up of various layers that contain protein, fat, water, minerals and other chemicals
- Acts like a barrier, protecting you from bacteria, viruses, fungi and other harmful invaders and substances
- Contains numerous nerve endings that help you sense heat, cold, pressure and pain
Any assaults to the skin, such as cuts, ulcerations, blisters, dehydration and even complications such as neuropathy can open up a whole host of potential problems. That’s why it’s so important to keep your skin functioning as well as it can.
What is type 1 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. As a result, the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes is also characterized by the presence of certain autoantibodies against insulin or other components of the insulin-producing system such as glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), tyrosine phosphatase, and/or islet cells.
When the body does not have enough insulin to use the glucose that is in the bloodstream for fuel, it begins breaking down fat reserves for energy. However, the breakdown of fat creates acidic by-products called ketones, which accumulate in the blood. If enough ketones accumulate in the blood, they can cause a potentially life-threatening chemical imbalance known as ketoacidosis.
Type 1 diabetes often develops in children, although it can occur at any age. Symptoms include unusual thirst, a need to urinate frequently, unexplained weight loss, blurry vision, and a feeling of being tired constantly. Such symptoms tend to be acute.
Diabetes is diagnosed in one of three ways – a fasting plasma glucose test, an oral glucose tolerance test, or a random plasma glucose test – all of which involve drawing blood to measure the amount of glucose in it.
Tips for healthy skin
So, what does it take to get and keep healthy skin?
Blood glucose control
At the risk of sounding like a broken record, aiming for HbA1c and blood glucose levels as close to target as possible really makes sense. Prolonged high blood glucose levels can leave your skin dehydrated and starving for moisture. Dry skin can become itchy, which means you end up scratching your skin, possibly causing some damage. Dry skin also can become cracked and sore, opening up the path to infection. Uncontrolled blood glucose levels can lead to neuropathy, which, in turn, can decrease the amount that you sweat. Sweating isn’t always pleasant, but it does help keep your skin moist. Without adequate moisture, skin becomes dry. Finally, high blood glucose levels can make it harder to prevent and heal skin infections.
Bathing or showering regularly is important. Clean skin means that you’re less likely to suffer from various skin infections. Use a mild, nondrying soap, such as Dove or Cetaphil. And, despite the fact that they feel so good, avoid taking very hot showers or baths, as hot water can be drying.
Your skin usually needs a little help in preventing dryness, especially during the cold weather. Use a moisturizing cream or lotion after you bathe. Moisturizer will help seal in water from your bath or shower. It’s best to shy away from heavily scented lotions if you have sensitive skin. And don’t put moisturizer between your toes, as this may encourage the growth of fungus. If the air in your home tends to be dry, consider running a humidifier.
The perfect time to check your skin for irritation, redness, cuts or sores is right after you step out of the shower. Minor cuts and rashes can be easily treated, but if you notice that something is worsening or just not going away, call your provider. Don’t forget to look at your skin for any suspicious changes that could indicate possible skin cancer, too.
Get in the habit of putting on a sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15 if you’re headed outdoors (even if the sun isn’t out). UV rays can damage skin. If you have diabetes, it’s important to avoid too much sun exposure and sunburn, particularly if you take certain medications, such as glyburide (brand names Micronase, DiaBeta, and Glynase), glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL), and glimepiride (Amaryl), as well as diuretics and NSAIDs (such as ibuprofen and celecoxib [Celebrex]). Don’t forget your lips, either — use a lip balm that contains SPF.