Z is the last letter in the alphabet, which means it often receives little or no attention. Yet Z is the first letter in the word “zinc.” How much thought have you ever given to zinc? Maybe some, if you take zinc supplements for a cold, for example. But new research indicates that zinc is something else that people with diabetes should think about. Why? Read on.
In case you’re wondering what the heck zinc does, it’s helpful to know that it’s an essential mineral that plays very important roles in the body. The body can’t make zinc, so we must take it in from food sources. Zinc is stored in the muscles, blood cells, retina of the eye, skin, bone, kidney, liver, pancreas, and in men, prostate.
What does zinc do for us? Primarily, zinc helps the immune system function properly. It’s also needed for cell growth and division, wound healing, and the breakdown of carbohydrate for energy. We need zinc to maintain our sense of taste and smell, too. Finally, zinc is an antioxidant, protecting our cells from free radicals, or molecules that can wreak havoc and possibly lead to heart disease and cancer.
Zinc is found in many foods. The main sources of zinc in the American diet are red meat, poultry, and seafood, but it’s also found in legumes, whole grains, nuts, and dairy foods. Zinc is better absorbed from animal foods than from plant foods, since compounds called phytates that are found in plants can hinder its absorption. Daily zinc requirements are 11 milligrams for adult men and 8 milligrams for adult women. Symptoms of zinc deficiency include stunted growth (in children), hair loss, diarrhea, decreased appetite, eye and skin lesions, delayed wound healing, and weight loss. People with chronic gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn disease, are at risk for zinc deficiency.
How does zinc relate to diabetes? Interestingly, zinc has long been an ingredient used in “older” insulins, such as Regular, NPH, and Lente. Zinc is also necessary for the formation of insulin in the pancreas’s beta cells. For these reasons, researchers have looked at the role of zinc supplementation in the prevention and treatment of Type 2 diabetes—unfortunately, without success.
However, new light has been shed on the role of zinc in diabetes. In this month’s issue of Diabetes Care, Finnish researchers followed 1,050 adults with Type 2 diabetes for seven years. During that time, 156 participants died from heart disease and 254 had fatal or nonfatal heart attacks. Blood zinc levels were lower in people who died from heart disease compared to those who survived; also, zinc levels were lower in those who had heart attacks. The authors of this study speculate that, possibly because zinc has antioxidant properties, supplementation may be useful in warding off heart disease in people with Type 2 diabetes.
Don’t start popping zinc pills just yet (unless it’s under the supervision of your health-care team); we still need to learn more. Too much zinc can upset the balance of copper and iron in the body, can weaken the immune system, can lower levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol, and can cause nausea and vomiting. Zinc supplements can interfere with the absorption and function of many medicines, including ACE inhibitors, some antibiotics, hormone replacement therapy, and corticosteroids. To be on the safe side, aim to get your zinc from food sources, as mentioned above. You’ll also get zinc if you take a multivitamin/multimineral supplement.
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Amy Campbell: Amy Campbell is the author of Staying Healthy with Diabetes: Nutrition and Meal Planning and a frequent contributor to Diabetes Self-Management and Diabetes & You. She has co-authored several books, including the The Joslin Guide to Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association’s 16 Myths of a “Diabetic Diet,” for which she received a Will Solimene Award of Excellence in Medical Communication and a National Health Information Award in 2000. Amy also developed menus for Fit Not Fat at Forty Plus and co-authored Eat Carbs, Lose Weight with fitness expert Denise Austin. Amy earned a bachelor’s degree in nutrition from Simmons College and a master’s degree in nutrition education from Boston University. In addition to being a Registered Dietitian, she is a Certified Diabetes Educator and a member of the American Dietetic Association, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Amy was formerly a Diabetes and Nutrition Educator at Joslin Diabetes Center, where she was responsible for the development, implementation, and evaluation of disease management programs, including clinical guideline and educational material development, and the development, testing, and implementation of disease management applications. She is currently the Director of Clinical Education Content Development and Training at Good Measures. Amy has developed and conducted training sessions for various disease and case management programs and is a frequent presenter at disease management events.
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