What Does Insulin Do?

The word “insulin” can instill fear in many people who have or who are at risk for diabetes. Some of the beliefs around insulin are that if you have to take it, you’ll go blind or lose a limb. Or that insulin causes you to gain weight. Or that it means your diabetes is worsening. While these beliefs are understandable, the reality is that they’re not true. In fact, insulin is a life-saving medication: without it, people with Type 1 diabetes[1] wouldn’t be alive, and many people with Type 2 diabetes[2] would be struggling. The discovery of insulin is so important that it’s often called one of the greatest medical developments of the 20th century. This week, let’s delve into insulin and learn more about how truly amazing it is!

What exactly is insulin?
Insulin is a hormone. It’s made in the beta cells[3] of the pancreas, and one of its main roles is to help regulate, or control, your blood sugar. When there’s enough insulin in the body, it helps to keep your blood sugar from going too high. In people who don’t have diabetes, blood sugars are very carefully and tightly controlled, staying within a safe and healthy range.

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After a person without diabetes eats a meal or a snack, the pancreas releases insulin. The insulin then signals muscle, fat, and liver cells in the body to absorb glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream to be used for energy. In this sense, insulin is like a key that unlocks the doors of the cells to allow glucose to enter. You can also think of insulin as a “storage” hormone, since when there’s more glucose than the body needs, insulin helps the body store that excess glucose in the liver to be used at a later time. Insulin also signals the liver to stop releasing glucose into the bloodstream.

Insulin also helps shuttle amino acids (from protein digestion) and fatty acids (from fat digestion) into cells.

What happens to insulin in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes: If you have Type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin, either by injection or by insulin pump, to survive. Why? Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys the beta cells in the pancreas. This means that the body can’t produce insulin (or at least enough of it). When this happens, the body literally can’t fuel itself, and it will start to use protein and fat stores for energy. This may seem OK, but blood sugar levels climb dangerously high. In addition, a serious condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)[4] can set in, which, if not treated, can be fatal. Hopefully you can see why insulin is literally a life-saving medicine for those with Type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes: The situation with insulin in Type 2 diabetes is very different from that in Type 1. Type 2 diabetes is a condition of insulin resistance, meaning that muscle, fat, and liver cells do not respond properly to insulin, and they can’t easily absorb glucose from the bloodstream. As a result, the body needs higher levels of insulin to help glucose enter cells[5]. Those beta cells in the pancreas start to work overtime to keep up with the increased demand for insulin by making more and more. Insulin levels in the bloodstream may be high. But eventually, the beta cells exhaust themselves and can no longer keep up with the body’s demand. Glucose levels in the bloodsteam build up, and prediabetes[6] or Type 2 diabetes can set in.

Is there an insulin “pill”?
Some people are scared of taking insulin because it has to be injected or infused. Injections and infusions mean needles, and if you have a fear of them, it’s understandable that you’re not going to be too keen on insulin injections. (There is an inhalable insulin available, but that’s an ultra-rapid-acting insulin; a longer-acting insulin is usually needed, and that must be taken by injection.)

You might be wondering why scientists haven’t come up with an insulin pill. It would be so easy to swallow insulin in a pill or capsule form, wouldn’t it? Unfortunately, at this time, no oral form is available. But it’s not for lack of trying: Researchers have been working on this for at least 80 years. The problem is that insulin, as mentioned, is a hormone, and most hormones are types of proteins. The digestive tract breaks down proteins, and insulin is no exception. Insulin in a pill form wouldn’t make it through the digestive tract to do its job of regulating blood sugars. In addition, insulin would have a tough time passing through the lining of the intestines into the bloodstream. But let’s not give up hope: Various drug companies are busy plugging away at this issue in hopes of coming up with an oral insulin that would do away with injections.

Next week, we’ll take a closer look at how insulin is injected, as well as the many different types of insulin that are available.

Amy Mercer has traveled enough with Type 1 diabetes to know what not to do. Bookmark DiabetesSelfManagement.com[7] and tune in tomorrow to learn more.

Endnotes:
  1. Type 1 diabetes: http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/diabetes-resources/definitions/type-1-diabetes/
  2. Type 2 diabetes: http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/diabetes-resources/definitions/type-2-diabetes/
  3. beta cells: http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/diabetes-resources/definitions/beta-cells/
  4. diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/managing-diabetes/blood-glucose-management/hyperglycemic-crises/
  5. help glucose enter cells: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/types/prediabetes-insulin-resistance
  6. prediabetes: http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/diabetes-resources/definitions/prediabetes/
  7. DiabetesSelfManagement.com: http://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com

Source URL: https://www.diabetesselfmanagement.com/blog/what-does-insulin-do/


Amy Campbell: Amy Campbell is the author of Staying Healthy with Diabetes: Nutrition and Meal Planning and a frequent contributor to Diabetes Self-Management and Diabetes & You. She has co-authored several books, including the The Joslin Guide to Diabetes and the American Diabetes Association’s 16 Myths of a “Diabetic Diet,” for which she received a Will Solimene Award of Excellence in Medical Communication and a National Health Information Award in 2000. Amy also developed menus for Fit Not Fat at Forty Plus and co-authored Eat Carbs, Lose Weight with fitness expert Denise Austin.

Amy earned a bachelor’s degree in nutrition from Simmons College and a master’s degree in nutrition education from Boston University. In addition to being a Registered Dietitian, she is a Certified Diabetes Educator and a member of the American Dietetic Association, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Amy was formerly a Diabetes and Nutrition Educator at Joslin Diabetes Center, where she was responsible for the development, implementation, and evaluation of disease management programs, including clinical guideline and educational material development, and the development, testing, and implementation of disease management applications. She is currently the Director of Clinical Education Content Development and Training at Good Measures. Amy has developed and conducted training sessions for various disease and case management programs and is a frequent presenter at disease management events.

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