Medicinal Mushrooms: Coming Out of the Dark (Part 2)

Thanks to all who posted comments about last week’s entry on mushrooms. For many, mushrooms are probably one of those foods that are taken for granted; people figure they’re great in salads or perhaps stuffed, but most don’t stop and think about what mushrooms really have to offer. So I hope these postings will expand your horizons a little!


Last week we learned that mushrooms are naturally low in calories, fat, and sodium, and high in potassium. But that’s not all. For a long time, it was thought that mushrooms offered little else in terms of nutrition. Fortunately, we’ve since learned that mushrooms have more to offer than we thought:

Selenium. Selenium is a mineral that we need in very, very small amounts — 50 micrograms or less per day (a microgram is one thousandth of a milligram). This mineral is essentially an antioxidant, working with other nutrients, including vitamins C and E, to reduce oxidative stress in the body. (Oxidative stress is thought to be linked with some chronic diseases, including heart disease.) Selenium also helps the thyroid gland function properly. White button, crimini (baby portabella), and shiitake mushrooms are excellent sources of this mineral.

Ergothioneine. This is a good word to casually mention in conversation! Actually, ergothioneine is an amino acid that was discovered in 1909 in a fungus. It’s not made by the human body, but it’s found in cells due to dietary absorption, and it’s thought to have antioxidant properties that help to protect cells from damage.

Ergothioneine is found in liver, kidney, wheat germ, oat bran, black beans, red beans, and mushrooms. A study out of Penn State found that white button mushrooms contain 12 times more ergothioneine than wheat germ and four times as much as in chicken liver. Crimini and portabella mushrooms contain more of this antioxidant than white button mushrooms, but the exotic mushrooms, such as shiitake, oyster, and maitake, contain even more than the common varieties. And cooking mushrooms doesn’t seem to decrease the ergothioneine content, either.

B vitamins. Mushrooms contain riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), and pantothenic acid (B5). These three vitamins are part of the B complex group of vitamins, which do a number of important things in the body: they help break down carbohydrate to be used for energy, they help the body use protein and fat, and they promote the health of the hair, skin, muscles, and liver. Crimini mushrooms are a great source of riboflavin, and mushrooms in general are an excellent source of niacin (especially good news for vegetarians!).

Vitamin D. Mushrooms are a natural source of vitamin D (which we’ve looked at in previous posts). Ten white button mushrooms provide 10% of the Daily Value (DV) for vitamin D.

Late last year, Monterey Mushrooms, the country’s largest grower of mushrooms, launched their Sun-Bella brand of mushrooms. A serving of these mushrooms provides at least 100% of the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) of vitamin D. The company collaborated on a research program with the USDA to develop the process that creates these mushrooms, which involves exposing the mushrooms to ultraviolet B light through a natural sun ripening process.

Copper. Like selenium, copper is a trace mineral that is essential for normal growth and development. Copper plays a role in the formation of red blood cells, helps the heart, blood vessels, and connective tissue to function properly, and is needed for bone health. The Recommended Daily Intake (RDA) for copper for adults is 900 micrograms per day. Food sources of copper include liver, oysters, sesame seeds, cashews, crimini mushrooms, soybeans, and barley. One half-cup of cooked mushrooms contains almost 400 micrograms of copper.

Phosphorus. Yet another essential mineral, phosphorus is necessary for maintaining bone structure, energy-creating reactions, and maintaining acid–base balance in the body. Adults need 700 milligrams of phosphorus per day. A serving of either crimini or portabella mushrooms provides about 10% of the Daily Value for phosphorus.

More mushroom info next week!

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  • Sally Smart

    what about canned mushrooms, do they loose any of the values listed here? I love mushrooms but find it hard to go out and buy fresh cos of several reasons., I like them sauted with onions and I heard from somewhere that together those two compliment each other as far as a healthy food.

  • acampbell

    Hi Sally,

    Canned mushrooms are probably fine in terms of their nutrition benefits, although I’m not sure if studies have been done with canned. Just be sure to read the label for sodium; if the level seems to be high (300 milligrams or more per serving), I’d suggest you rinse them before using.

  • Deborah Lam

    Thank you Amy for sharing this info. I wasn’t aware that fungus’ could be so good for you. I am going to check my recipes and find more places than salads. Take care and may God bless.

  • dee

    Mushrooms are listed as a “high purine” food which can trigger gout attacks. What alternatives are available for people who have gout? Are there any mushrooms that are low in purine content?

  • michael tingle

    I thank you for your update now I am going back to eating mushrooms.

  • acampbell

    Hi dee,

    It’s true that high-purine foods should be limited, somewhat, for those with gout. However, my understanding is that gout is more effectively treated with medicine than with strict dietary changes. Nevertheless, mushrooms are considered to be “moderately” high in purines — meat, organ meats, and seafood are higher. I wasn’t able to find the purine content of each type of mushrooms, but perhaps this link will be of some help: I’ve also read that crimini mushrooms probably have a higher purine content than other varieties. In the meantime, you’ll hopefully still be able to enjoy mushrooms in your diet on occasion without triggering a flare-up of gout.

  • Constance Pederson

    I miss the adventures of mushroom picking with my Polish grandparents and parents. After a rain, the beefsteak and wild pinkies would appear. After getting home, we would clean the mushrooms and then string them up to hang in the kitchen pantry. Some of the mushrooms were sliced and dried between screens; what a delightful aroma in grandma’s country kitchen pantry. After the mushrooms were dried, and they lasted months; when needed, the mushrooms were soaked in water to bring them back. I loved them fried with onions and potatoes as a side dish served with sour cream. I never learned the skill of mushroom picking like my parents did; it is a special gift, but the mushroom blog brought back wonderful memories! Thanks.

  • acampbell

    Hi Constance,

    What a great memory! It must have been a lot of fun to go mushroom picking. Thanks for sharing that.



  • Diane Fennell

    Hi Kanu,

    Thank you for your comment. Please click the following link to read “Medicinal Mushrooms: Coming Out of the Dark (Part 1)”:

    Diane Fennell
    Web Editor

  • Judith Nielsen

    I had breast cancer surgery in May,2008. Had radiation and tried all the estrogen blocking meds.Can’t take any of them. Did some research and found mushrooms are used in Japan for breast cancer. I am taking a capsule with 8 mushrooms to strenthen the t-cells and each morning I have a large helping of the fresh mushrooms, either Maitake,Shitake or white button for breakfast with an egg.Yum. I also read that the turkey tail mushroom is very big in fighting cancer. Have just found it on the internet.
    My husband is going to build a mushroom growing room in the basement so we can grow our own.