Study Links Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment in Elderly

Although various complications of diabetes, such as retinopathy (eye disease), neuropathy (nerve damage), and nephropathy (kidney disease), are well known and well researched, the effect diabetes has on the brain has until now received relatively little attention. But recently, a team of investigators from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center identified a key mechanism that links diabetes to depression, memory loss, and other types of cognitive impairment in older individuals.

The team, led by Vera Novak, MD, PhD, has been studying the relationship between diabetes and cognitive difficulties for five years. In their previous research, they discovered that people with diabetes had significantly more brain shrinkage than people without diabetes. To test the hypothesis that chronic inflammation related to high blood glucose levels could affect blood flow to the brains of people with diabetes, Novak recruited 147 people with an average age of 65. Seventy-one of the people had Type 2 diabetes and had been taking medicine to control their condition for at least five years, while the other 76 people did not have diabetes and served as the control group.

Advertisement

The participants were given a series of cognitive tests, balance tests, and blood pressure and blood glucose tests and also had blood drawn to check for various markers of systemic inflammation. They additionally underwent MRI testing (in which magnetic fields and radio waves are used to provide detailed images of internal body structures) to measure blood flow to the brain.

As they’d expected, the researchers found that people with diabetes had more blood vessel constriction (narrowing) and a greater decline in brain tissue. They also found that high blood glucose levels were strongly correlated with higher levels of inflammation-causing chemicals called cytokines. The scientists determined that chronic high blood glucose and insulin resistance trigger the release of two specific molecules — sVCAM and sICAM — that set off a chain of events, leading to the chronic inflammation that causes a reduction in blood flow and shrinkage in brain tissue.

“If these markers [sVCAM and sICAM] can be identified before the brain is damaged, we can take steps to try and intervene,” noted Novak, adding that the research presents further incentive for people to take steps to manage their diabetes.

Previous research by scientists from the University of Alberta, in Canada, has identified several factors linked with cognitive deficits in older adults with diabetes, including high blood pressure, a slow gait or poor balance, and self-reported bad health.

To learn more about the study, read the article “Researchers Identify Link Between Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults” or see the study’s abstract in the journal Diabetes Care. And for tips on controlling high blood glucose, see the article “Managing Hyperglycemia.”

  • jim snell

    Thank you for sharing this most important data.

    The blood system is the common feed everywhere in body. The smallest and critical plumbing in the brain.

    Constant high levels of glucose rot out the plumbing of the body. My experience was more revelent and pertinent to your article.

    As a result of extreme high levels of glucose from my liver, I had a stroke knocking out my balance and eye tracking and assorted others.

    Worse though was that many times the body can re-plumb some occlusions. In my case the sugar/glucose caused a solid plug such that the MRI one year later looked identical to the first one done causing the Doctor to say – the second MRI looked exactly like my first one done at time of stroke.

    So, get those numbers down and be sure to catch the dog messing up the picnic early and take steps to correct.

    So, do not dally around and be sure to get the questions answered. Type 2 in its early days is quite benign but dangerous just the same.

  • Deb

    Yikes! I also have fibromyalgia, in which studies have shown shrinkage in certain areas of the brain. My mother, grandfather and great-grandmother(the only diabetic) all had dementia. I’m keeping my long term care insurance paid up and doing everything I can to stay healthy. Jim, your experience is very instructive.

  • gayden truluck

    Wow, my 84 yr.old mother is a perfect example of this. Plus, she has these spells of incontinence w. her bladder and bowels as well. She also vomits not everyday, but a few times a week. She is not managing her sugar levels well at all. She is low to the pt. she passes out then swings high up in the mid 200’s. Doesn’t help she insists on Ice Cream when her levels are already high. She’s in Assisted living at the moment, and looks like she might have to stay there based on these articles. Also is having balance issues. Thanks for the info.